I think right now the answer is still yes, adaptation can only be accomplished by something that can make conscious decisions and learn from the results. I'm not up on current events in robotics, but I'm certain that while we can create a program that causes the unit to make a decision based on certain criteria that are in effect, there is no thinking, feeling or wanting involved in that, only computation based on given data.
What happens if that unit does learn, and starts to want, to think or to feel on it's own, past it's initial programming? Is it then something more than a computer? Is it alive? That's what these three short fictions below address.
I found all three of them to be thought provoking and would recommend them all if you're interested in this question. All three lead the reader to be sympathetic to the AI unit that exhibits signs of life. All three also address the fear of something different, and how that is to be stamped out. I know this has been a big idea in science fiction for a long time, Isaac Asimov being one of the most well known authors on the subject.
It's a frightening idea really, but also makes you think. At what point should something be considered alive?
This video was put together by a game design team though it is claimed it is not yet part of any current game, but it speaks eloquently to the question of what makes something alive.